Overview of Media Accessibility
Drupal & Video
Audio and video require a text alternative to allow everyone the opportunity to perceive the content.
|Text Alternative||File Format|
|Closed Captions||.srt, .vtt|
(Text Embedded in Video)
Guidelines for Audio Only
1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded): For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, (Level A)
- Prerecorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded audio-only content.
Audio Only Examples
Alternatives for Audio Only
- Transcript (text file)
The following example offers a transcript with each podcast episode, which allows audiences to review content in ways that can benefit everyone.
Masters of Scale
Masters of Scale is an original podcast hosted by Reid Hoffman, co-founder of LinkedIn and investor at Greylock. In each episode, Reid shows how companies grow from zero to a gazillion, testing his theories with legendary leaders. Masters of Scale is the first American media program to commit to gender balance for guests.
Guideline for Video Only
1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded): For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, (Level A)
- Prerecorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded video-only content.
Video Only Examples
- Video with no relevant audio.
Alternatives for Video Only
- Audio track with narration of text on screen.
- Closed Captions
- Transcript (Text or Text File)
Video Only Example (Not Recommended)
The follow video is inaccessible, it has no relevant audio and no text alternative..
Barriers are experiences if text alternatives are unavailable:
- The content can not be accessed for blind individuals using screen readers.
- The content makes it challenging for individuals with low vision using screen magnification. Every time the text changes on screen, low vision viewers must pause the video and navigate to the text.
A equivalent audio track or text based alternative is required for this video.
Video Only Example (Recommended)
The following video is an example of video only content with support for all viewers.
- Closed captions are available for blind users to listen to the closed captions spoken aloud with a screen reader.
- A transcript is provided for viewers to read with assistive technology.
Importance of Play - Transcript
It's important to think about play! Children have a right to play This is defined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) While play may be enacted in challenging conditions-- the UN recognizes that children must be free from harmful stress, violence, discrimination, and physical dangers Play is defined by the following 6 elements It's always intrinsically motivated: The player wants to do it It's enjoyable: It must be fun! It has no external rules, on those invented by the player: An adult can't change the game It is valued for the process rather than its outcomes: What happens during play is most important It shows active engagement on the part of the players: The player is actively part of the process It is non-literal: May have real-life themes but also imaginary Play may not be as valued in some cultures as the contributions to support the family. Family structure may also directly impact children's play experiences A major risk: Adults begin to dominate play or disguise teaching as support for play-- this can diminish the benefits of play. Always go back to the characteristics of play! It's time to start thinking... what does play mean to you?
Audio and Video
Guideline for Synchronized Audio and Video
1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded): Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)
Synchronized Audio and Video Examples
- Video with relevant audio.
Alternatives for Synchronized Audio and Video
- Closed captions
- Open captions
- Closed captions are the equivalent representation for the audio content, which benefit many users in need of text alternatives to perceive the audio content.
- Closed captions also provide description for sounds within the audio track.
- When using video content with narrated audio, be sure closed captions are accurate and available at the time of posting.
The following example provides closed captions and describes sounds within the audio track.
- Open captions are essentially the closed captions, the difference is text is forced on screen.
- Open captions are valuable when media platforms do not support support closed captions such as Instagram.
- Open captions are a solution when closed captions are not supported, but some users may still need a text-based alternative. Consider providing a link to a transcript file to support everyone.
Drupal & Videos
Embedding video in a webpage
Embed video with the following services:
An embedded video will display the content on the webpage and allow website visitors to play the media without leaving the page.
Steps to Embed a Video
- Locate the Vimeo or Youtube video to use
- Copy the website URL
- Choose the "Insert from Media Library" option in the Drupal editor
- Paste the website URL in the "Add Remote video via URL" field and choose "Add"
- If necessary, adjust the video name, then choose "Save and Insert"
- The video will be shown in the Drupal Textarea. (Vimeo and Youtube Examples below)
Captions for Facebook Videos
You can add captions to your Page's video to make it accessible to a broader audience. You can automatically generate captions and edit them, write them yourself or you can upload a SubRip (.srt) file.
To add captions to your Page's video:
- Click Photo/Video at the top of your Page's timeline.
- Click Upload Photos/Video and select a video from your computer.
- Once your video has uploaded, click Subtitles & Captions(CC) in the column on the right.
- Next to Video Language, select the main language spoken in the video.
- Once your video has finished uploading, select whether you'd like to auto-generate captions, write them yourself or upload a SubRip (.srt) file.
- Click Publish.
If you choose to upload a .srt file, make sure that your caption files are correctly named and formatted before you upload them.
To add captions to an existing video on your Page, find the post on your Page's timeline, click in the top-right corner, select Edit Post and follow the steps above.
Note: People who watch your Page's video with sound turned off will automatically see captions. People who watch your video with sound turned on will need to turn on captions to see them. The language people see captions in is determined by their preferred language.
Instagram Video Accessibility
When uploading video content to Instagram, be sure to provide open captions in the video.
Closed caption formats are not currently supported in Instagram
Creating Open Captions
To create an open caption file, use a video editing tool such as Camtasia.
Camtasia will offer the ability to export a video file with the .srt file embedded into the video.
Open Caption Example
The following video is an example in a square format and the captions are embedded in the video.
Twitter Media Accessibility
Twitter supports uploading a closed caption file.
How do .SRT subtitles work?
- Click on a video within your Media Studio library.
- Select the “Subtitles” tab in the pop-up window.
- Select the text language of your subtitle file from the dropdown menu.
- Click the “Upload” button and select the sidecar .SRT file from your local computer.
- The file is now associated with your video. To update the file, click the Pencil icon.
Twitter Closed Captions Example
Vimeo Video Accessibility
Vimeo supports .srt and .vtt caption formats.
You can add captions or subtitles to your video on the Distribution tab, Subtitles section of your video settings.
To upload a captions or subtitles file, click the “+” button, specify the language, and tell us whether it’s a caption or subtitle file.
Then click Choose File and upload the file from your computer.
Once the file is uploaded, you’ll need to toggle it on to activate it.
To replace, delete, download, or edit the file, click on the three dots next to the file name and select the corresponding option from the menu.
Vimeo Subtitles & Captions Overview
Reference more information in the Vimeo Help Center link above.
Youtube Video Accessibility
Youtube supports .srt and .vtt caption file formats.
Upload a FIle
If you have a subtitle and closed caption file, you can upload it to your video. These types of files contain both the text and time codes for when each line of text should be displayed. Some files also include position and style information, which is especially useful for deaf or hard of hearing viewers.
Before you start, make sure that your file type is supported on YouTube.
- Sign in to YouTube Studio.
- From the left, select Videos.
- Click on the title or thumbnail of a video.
- Select More options.
- Select Upload subtitles/cc.
- Choose between With timing or Without timing then select Continue.
- Choose a file to upload.
- Select Save.
Note About Timing
Choose the "With Timing" option when uploading a .srt or .vtt caption file.
SRT and VTT files contain timecode for the beginning and ending time for the captioned text.
How to Upload Subtitle Caption Files to Youtube Videos
Video Caption Editing Tools
VTT & SRT
Video Text Tracks (.vtt)
Some tools may not support all video caption formats such as Video Text Tracks or WebVTT (.vtt).
Some video services such as Zoom or 3CMediaSolutions, provide caption files in the .vtt format.
The .vtt format works well with internet based streaming services and online editing tools, but .vtt is not support with some offline editing software.
Aegisub and Camtasia do not currently support the .vtt caption file format.
The SubRip (.srt) format is standardized caption format supported by online services and offline editing tools.
Difference Between VTT and SRT
The difference between the .vtt and .srt caption format is essentially timecode punctuation.
|VTT Format||SRT Format|
|The VTT format uses the WEBVTT text at the beginning of the file and a period after the seconds.||The SRT format does not have text at the beginning of the file and uses a comma after the seconds.|
00:00:03,780 --> 00:00:14,070
Matthew Spinneberg: Alright, so as we begin, like I mentioned, I'll be using a text to speech software and we will get this training going
Convert VTT to SRT
It is important to use a tool to convert the caption format from VTT to SRT.
A search and replace of periods and commas may appear to be the solution for converting VTT to SRT, but that process may result in replacing the periods within the text.
Use a tool such as Subtitle Edit to accurately convert .vtt to .srt.
Subtitle Edit Online
Subtitle Edit is a free tool to convert and edit caption files.
Caption files can be edited with Subtitle Edit Online, but it is recommended to make corrections with offline tools such as Aegisub or Camtasia to prevent loss of data.
Working in an offline tools reduces the reliance on the internet.
Steps to convert VTT to SRT
- Visit Subtitle Edit Online
- Choose the Subtitle menu
- Choose Open...
- Pick the Choose File button
- Open the .vtt file
- Choose the Load Subtitle button
- Choose the Subtitle menu
- Choose Save/download...
- Choose the SubRip (.srt) format
- Activate the Save/download button
The SubRip (.srt) format will then be available in the Downloads folder of the computer.
Remember to rename the .srt file the same name as the video file.
Converting VTT to SRT Video Example
The following video does not contain an audio track, it is a visual representation of the steps listed above.
Use the SRT file with Aegisub or Camtasia to make necessary text corrections.
Aegisub is a free, cross-platform open source tool for creating and modifying subtitles. Aegisub makes it quick and easy to time subtitles to audio, and features many powerful tools for styling them, including a built-in real-time video preview
Edit SRT Caption Files
The Aegisub tool supports editing of .srt files.
The video and .srt file can be opened together to make necessary corrections to the text.
Each time synchronized line of captioned text can display the audio and video playback to allow the user the ability to hear the content and address any incorrect text.
Aegisub can be used to create media captions from start, there will be a learning curve and technical skilled involved.
It is recommended to request a .srt caption file from the VCCCD Marketing Team or a related college service.
When the media files are available, it is best to name the video and .srt file the same name before opening an Aegisub project.
- Accessibility Training 7.8.20.mp4
- Accessibility Training 7.8.20.srt
Opening the Media Files
Open the .srt file first, then add the video to the Aegisub project.
- Right click the .srt file
- Choose Open with
- Choose Aegisub
- In Aegisub, choose the Video menu
- Choose Open Video...
The following screenshot shows a .srt file and video opened in an Aegisub project.
|r||Plays the selected caption line.|
|CTRL + p||Plays the video from the selected line|
Aegisub Getting Started Tutorial
Aegisub Project Format
Aegisub starts projects in a subtitle/caption format called .ass.
After making edits, the .srt format will need to be exported from the project.
Export SRT Caption Format
To export a .srt file, do the following:
- Choose the File Menu
- Choose Export Subtitles... (PC) or Export as...(Mac)
- Choose Export...
- Provide the File Name (Use the same name as the video)
- Choose the SubRip (.srt) as the Save as type (PC) or File type (Mac).
Camtasia is available for employees in the Ventura County Community College District.
Moorpark College, Oxnard College, Ventura College and District employees can contact their IT departments to request assistance installing Camtasia for Mac or PC.
- Cut video
- Add video animations
- Edit .srt caption text
- Export .srt file
- Export .mp4 file
- Export open caption .mp4 (forced captions on video)
- Much more...
When an audio is the means to perceive the content, some audiences will experience barriers.
Audio Only (Not Recommended)
Audio Only (Recommended)
The follow audio only goes above and beyond.
- Closed captions are available and synchronized with the audio.
- A visual waveform is available.
- A text transcript is also provided.
Breathing Meditation Transcript
So find a relaxed, comfortable position,
seated on a chair or on the floor on a cushion.
Keep your back upright but not too tight,
hands resting wherever they're comfortable.
Tongue on the roof of your mouth
or whatever is comfortable.
And you can notice your body from the inside,
noticing the shape of your
body, the weight, touch.
And let yourself relax and become
curious about your body seated here.
The sensations of your body, the touch,
the connection with the floor or chair.
Relax in the areas of tightness or tension.
Just breathe, soften.
And now begin to tune into your breath in
your body, feeling the natural flow of breath.
You don't need to do anything to your
breath, not long, not short, just natural.
Notice where you feel your breath in your body.
It might be in your abdomen.
It may be in your chest or
throat or in your nostrils.
See if you can feel the sensations
of breath, one breath at a time.
When one breath ends, the next breath begins.
Now as you do this, you might notice
that your mind may start to wander.
You might start thinking about other things.
If this happens, this is not a problem.
It's very natural.
Just noticed that your mind has wandered.
You could say thinking, or
wandering in your head softly.
And then gently redirect your
attention right back to the breathing.
So we'll stay with this for
some time in silence.
Just a short time, noticing our
breath from time to time getting lost
in thought and returning to our breath.
See if you could be really kind
to yourself in the process.
And once again, you can notice your
body, your whole body seated here.
Let yourself relax even more deeply.
And then offer yourself some appreciation for
doing this practice today, whatever that means
to you, finding a sense of ease and
well-being for yourself and this day.
[ Bell Ringing ]
The following video demonstrates what it is like when someone is unable to hear the audio in a video.
There is nothing to hear and nothing to read, everyone will experience a barrier.
When closed captions are available for Youtube or Vimeo videos, screen reader users are able access the text displayed.
Blind video viewers may use a preferred voice to listen to the closed captions spoken aloud.
Deaf blind video viewers may use screen readers with electronic braille to read the closed captions.